Often your app will have long running operations, such as sending emails or reading files, that take too long to run during a client request. To help with this, Alchemy makes it easy to create queued jobs that can be persisted and run in the background. Your requests will stay lightning fast and important long running operations will never be lost if your server restarts or re-deploys.

Configure your queues with the Queue class. Out of the box, Alchemy provides providers for queues backed by Redis and SQL as well as an in-memory mock queue.

Configuring Queues

Like other Alchemy services, Queue conforms to the Service protocol. Configure it with the config function.

Queue.config(default: .redis())

If you’re using the database() queue configuration, you’ll need to add the Queue.AddJobsMigration migration to your database’s migrations.

Database.default.migrations = [

Creating Jobs

To make a task to run on a queue, conform to the Job protocol. It includes a single run function. It also requires Codable conformance, so that any properties will be serialized and available when the job is run.

struct SendWelcomeEmail: Job {
    let email: String

    func run() -> EventLoopFuture<Void> {
        // Send welcome email to email

Note that Rune Models are Codable and can thus be included and persisted as properties of a job.

struct ProcessUserTransactions: Job {
    let user: User

    func run() -> EventLoopFuture<Void> {
        // Process user's daily transactions

Dispatching Jobs

Dispatching a job is as simple as calling dispatch().

SendWelcomeEmail(email: "josh@withapollo.com").dispatch()

By default, Alchemy will dispatch your job on the default queue. If you’d like to run on a different queue, you may specify it.

ProcessUserTransactions(user: user)
    .dispatch(on: .named("other_queue"))

If you’d like to run something when your job is complete, you may override the finished function to hook into the result of a completed job.

struct SendWelcomeEmail: Job {
    let email: String

    func run() -> EventLoopFuture<Void> { ... }

    func finished(result: Result<Void, Error>) {
        switch result {
        case .success:
            Log.info("Successfully sent welcome email to \(email).")
        case .failure(let error):
            Log.error("Failed to send welcome email to \(email). Error was: \(error).")

Dequeuing and Running Jobs

To actually have your jobs run after dispatching them to a queue, you’ll need to run workers that monitor your various queues for work to be done.

You can spin up workers as a separate process using the queue command.

swift run MyApp queues

If you don’t want to manage another running process, you can pass the --workers flag when starting your server have it run the given amount of workers in process.

swift run MyApp --workers 2

You can view the various options for the queues command in Configuration.


Sometimes you may want to prioritize running some jobs over others or have workers that only run certain kinds of jobs. Alchemy provides the concept of a “channel” to help you do so. By default, jobs run on the “default” channel, but you can specify the specific channel name to run on with the channel parameter in dispatch().

SendPasswordReset(for: user).dispatch(channel: "email")

By default, a worker will dequeue jobs from a queue’s "default" channel, but you can tell them dequeue from another channel with the -c option.

swift run MyServer queue -c email

You can also have them dequeue from multiple channels by separating channel names with commas. It will prioritize jobs from the first channels over subsequent ones.

swift run MyServer queues -c email,sms,push

Handling Job Failures

By default, jobs that encounter an error during execution will not be retried. If you’d like to retry jobs on failure, you can add the recoveryStrategy property. This indicates what should happen when a job is failed.

struct SyncSubscriptions: Job {
    // Retry this job up to five times.
    var recoveryStrategy: RecoveryStrategy = .retry(5)

You can also specify the retryBackoff to wait the specified time amount before retrying a job.

struct SyncSubscriptions: Job {
    // After a job failure, wait 1 minute before retrying
    var retryBackoff: TimeAmount = .minutes(1)